The Ogoni Bill of Rights which was presented to the Government of the Federal Republic
of Nigeria in 1990 called for, among other things, political autonomy to participate
in the affairs of the Republic as a distinct and separate unit (by whatever name
called), provided that this autonomy guarantees political control of Ogoni affairs
by Ogoni people; the right to control and use a fair proportion of Ogoni economic
resources for Ogoni development; adequate representations, as of right, in all Nigerian
national institutions, and the right to protect the Ogoni environment and ecology
from further degradation.
OGONI BILL OF RIGHTS
PRESENTED TO THE GOVERNMENT
AND PEOPLE OF NIGERIA
AN APPEAL TO THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY
The Movement for the Survival of the Ogoni People
(MOSOP) December, 1991
Published by Saros International Publishers, 24 Aggrey Road, PO Box 193, Port Harcourt,
Nigeria for The Movement for the Survival of the Ogoni People (MOSOP) June 1992.
In August 1990 the Chiefs and people of Ogoni in Nigeria met to sign one of the
most important declarations to come out of Africa in recent times: the Ogoni Bill
of Rights By the Bill, the Ogoni people, while underlining their loyalty to the Nigerian
nation, laid claim as a people to their independence which British colonialism had
first violated and then handed over to some other Nigerian ethnic groups in October
The Bill of Rights presented to the Government and people of Nigeria called for political
control of Ogoni affairs by Ogoni people, control and use of Ogoni economic resources
for Ogoni development, adequate and direct representation as of right for Ogoni people
in all Nigerian national institutions and the right to protect the Ogoni environment
and ecology from further degradation.
These rights which should have reverted to the Ogoni after the termination of British
rule, have been usurped in the past thirty years by the majority ethnic groups of
Nigeria. They have not only been usurped; they have been misused and abused, turning
Nigeria into a hell on earth for the Ogoni and similar ethnic minorities. Thirty
years of Nigerian independence has done no more than outline the wretched quality
of the leadership of the Nigerian majority ethnic groups and their cruelty as they
have plunged the nation into ethnic strife, carnage, war, dictatorship, retrogression
and the greatest waste of national resources ever witnessed in world history, turning
generations of Nigerians, born and unborn into perpetual debtors.
The Ogoni Bill of Rights rejects once and for all this incompetent indigenous colonialism
and calls for a new order in Nigeria, an order in which each ethnic group will have
full responsibility for its own affairs and competition between the various peoples
of Nigeria will be fair, thus ushering in a new era of peaceful co-existence, co-operation
and national progress.
This is the path which has been chosen by the European tribes in the European Community,
and by the Russians and their neighbours in the new Commonwealth which they are now
fashioning. The Yugoslav tribes are being forced into similar ways. The lesson is
that high fences make good neighbours. The Ogoni people are therefore in the mainstream
of international thought.
It is well known that since the issuance of the Bill of Rights the Babangida administration
has continued in the reactionary ways of all the military rulers of Nigeria from
Ironsi through Gowon, Obasanjo and Buhari, seeking to turn Nigeria into a unitary
state against the wishes of the Nigerian peoples and trends in world history. The
split of the country into 30 states and 600 local governments in 1991 is a waste
of resources, a veritable exercise in futility. It is a further attempt to transfer
the seized resources of the Ogoni and other minority groups in the delta to the majority
ethnic groups of the country. Without oil, these states and local governments will
not exist for one day longer.
The import of the creation of these states is that the Ogoni and other minority groups
will continue to be slaves of the majority ethnic groups. It is a gross abuse of
human rights, a notable undemocratic act which flies in the face of modern history.
The Ogoni people are right to reject it. While they are willing, for the reasons
of Africa, to share their resources with other Africans, they insist that it must
be on the principles of mutuality, of fairness, of equity and justice.
It has been assumed that because the Ogoni are few in number, they can be abused
and denied their rights and that their environment can be destroyed without compunction.
This has been the received wisdom of Nigeria according to military dictatorships.
1992 will put paid to this as the Ogoni put their case to the international community.
It is the intention of the Ogoni people to draw the attention of the American government
and people to the fact that the oil which they buy from Nigeria is stolen property
and that it is against American law to receive stolen goods.
The Ogoni people will be telling the European Community that their demand of the
Yugoslav tribes that they respect human rights and democracy should also apply to
Nigeria and that they should not wait for Nigeria to burst into ethnic strife and
carnage before enjoining these civilized values on a Nigeria which depends on European
investment, technology and credit.
The Ogoni people will be appealing to the British Government and the leaders of the
Commonwealth who have urged on Commonwealth countries the virtues of good government,
democracy, human rights and environmental protection that no government can be good
if it imposes and operates laws which cheat a section of its peoples; that democracy
does not exist where laws do not protect minorities and that the environment of the
Ogoni and other delta minorities has been ruined beyond repair by multi-national
oil companies under the protection of successive Nigerian administrations run by
Nigerians of the majority ethnic groups.
The Ogoni people will make representation to the World Bank and the International
Monetary Fund to the effect that giving loans and credit to the Nigerian Government
on the understanding that oil money will be used to repay such loans is to encourage
the Nigerian government to continue to dehumanise the Ogoni people and to devastate
the environment and ecology of the Ogoni and other delta minorities among whom oil
The Ogoni people will inform the United Nations and the Organisation of African Unity
that the Nigerian Constitution and the actions of the power elite in Nigeria flagrantly
violate the UN Declaration of Human Rights and the African Charter of Human and Peoples
Rights; and that Nigeria in 1992 is no different from Apartheid South Africa. The
Ogoni people will ask that Nigeria be duly chastised by both organizations for its
inhuman actions and uncivilized behaviour. And if Nigeria persists in its perversity,
then it should be expelled form both organizations.
These actions of the Ogoni people aim at the restoration of the inalienable rights
of the Ogoni people as a distinct ethnic community in Nigeria, and at the establishment
of a democratic Nigeria, a progressive multi-ethnic nation, a realistic society of
equals, a just nation.
What the Ogoni demand for themselves, namely autonomy, they also ask for others throughout
Nigeria and, indeed, the continent of Africa.
It is their hope that the international community will respond to these demands as
they have done to similar demands in other parts of the world.
Port Harcourt 24/12/91
STATEMENT BY DR. G.B. LETON, OON JP
President of the Movement for the Survival of Ogoni People (MOSOP)
1. The Ogoni case is of genocide being committed in the dying years of the twentieth
century by multi-national oil companies under the supervision of the Government of
the Federal Republic of Nigeria. It is that of a distinct ethnic minority in Nigeria
who feel so suffocated by existing political, economic and social conditions in Nigeria
that they have no choice but to cry out to the international community for salvation.
2. The Ogoni are a distinct ethnic group inhabiting the coastal plains terraces to
the north- east of the Niger delta. On account of the hitherto very rich plateau
soil, the people are mainly subsistence farmers but they also engage in migrant and
nomadic fishing. They occupy an area of about 400 square miles and number an estimated
500,000. The population density of about 1,250 persons per square mile is among the
highest in any rural area in the world and compares with the Nigerian national average
of 300. The obvious problem is the pressure on land.
3. Petroleum was discovered in Ogoni at Bomu (Dere) in 1958; since then an estimated
US 100 billion dollars worth of oil has been carted away from Ogoniland. In return
for this, the Ogoni have no pipe-borne water, no electricity, very few roads, ill-equipped
schools and hospitals and no industry whatsoever.
4. Ogoni has suffered and continues to suffer the degrading effects of oil exploration
and exploitation: lands, streams and creeks are totally and continually polluted;
the atmosphere is for ever charged with hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide and carbon
dioxide; many villages experience the infernal quaking of the wrath of gas flares
which have been burning 24 hours a day for 33 years; acid rain, oil spillages and
blowouts are common. The result of such unchecked environmental pollution and degradation
are that (i) The Ogoni can no longer farm successfully. Once the food basket of the
eastern Niger Delta, the Ogoni now buy food (when they can afford it); (ii) Fish,
once a common source of protein, is now rare. Owing to the constant and continual
pollution of our streams and creeks, fish can only be caught in deeper and offshore
waters for which the Ogoni are not equipped. (iii) All wildlife is dead. (iv) The
ecology is changing fast. The mangrove tree, the aerial roots of which normally provide
a natural and welcome habitat for many a sea food - crabs, periwinkles, mudskippers,
cockles, mussels, shrimps and all - is now being gradually replaced by unknown and
otherwise useless plams. (v) The health hazards generated by an atmosphere charged
with hydrocarbon vapour, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide are innumerable.
5. The once beautiful Ogoni countryside is no more a source of fresh air and green
vegetation. All one sees and feels around is death. Death is everywhere in Ogoni.
Ogoni languages are dying; Ogoni culture is dying; Ogoni people, Ogoni animals, Ogoni
fishes are dying because of 33 years of hazardous environmental pollution and resulting
food scarcity. In spite of an alarming density of population, American and British
oil companies greedily encroach on more and more Ogoni land, depriving the peasants
of their only means of livelihood. Mining rents and royalties for Ogoni oil are seized
by the Federal Government of Nigeria which offers the Ogoni people NOTHING in return.
Ogoni is being killed so that Nigeria can live.
6. Politically, the Ogoni are being ground to the dust under dictatorial decrees
imposed by successive military regimes in Nigeria and laws smuggled by military dictatorships
into the Nigerian Constitution which Constitution does not protect ethnic minorities
and which today bears no resemblance whatsoever to the covenant entered into by the
federating Nigerian ethnic groups at Independence.
7. Ethnicity is a fact of Nigerian life. Nigeria is a federation of ethnic groups.
In practice, however, ethnocentrism is the order of the day in the country. The rights
and resources of the Ogoni have been usurped by the majority ethnic groups and the
Ogoni consigned to slavery and possible extinction. The Ogoni people reject the current
political and administrative structuring of Nigeria imposed by the Military Government.
They believe with Obafemi Awolowo that in a true federation, each ethnic gourp, no
matter how small is entitled to the same treatment as any other ethnic group, no
matter how large.
8. The Ogoni people therefore demand POLITICAL AUTONOMY as a distinct and separate
unit of the Nigerian federation - autonomy which will guarantee them certain basic
rights essential to their survival as a people. This demand has been spelt out in
the Ogoni Bill of Rights. The Ogoni people stand by the Bill and now appeal to the
international community, as a last resort, to save them from extinction.
(Sgd) Dr. G.B. Leton
President, Movement for the Survival of Ogoni People (MOSOP)
OGONI BILL OF RIGHTS PRESENTED TO THE GOVERNMENT AND PEOPLE OF NIGERIA
We, the people of Ogoni (Babbe, Gokana, Ken Khana, Nyo Khana and Tai) numbering about
500,000 being a separate and distinct ethnic nationality within the Federal Republic
of Nigeria, wish to draw the attention of the Governments and people of Nigeria to
the undermentioned facts:
1. That the Ogoni people, before the advent of British colonialism, were not conquered
or colonized by any other ethnic group in present-day Nigeria.
2. That British colonization forced us into the administrative division of Opobo
from 1908 to 1947.
3. That we protested against this forced union until the Ogoni Native Authority
was created in 1947 and placed under the then Rivers Province.
4. That in 1951 we were forcibly included in the Eastern Region of Nigeria where
we suffered utter neglect.
5. That we protested against this neglect by voting against the party in power in
the Region in 1957, and against the forced union by testimony before the Willink
Commission of Inquiry into Minority Fears in 1958.
6. That this protest led to the inclusion of our nationality in Rivers State in
1967, which State consists of several ethnic nationalities with differing cultures,
languages and aspirations.
7. That oil was struck and produced in commercial quantities on our land in 1958
at K. Dere (Bomu oilfield).
8. That oil has been mined on our land since 1958 to this day from the following
oilfields: (i) Bomu (ii) Bodo West (iii) Tai (iv) Korokoro (v) Yorla (vi) Lubara
Creek and (vii) Afam by Shell Petroleum Development Company (Nigeria) Limited.
9. That in over 30 years of oil mining, the Ogoni nationality have provided the
Nigerian nation with a total revenue estimated at over 40 billion Naira (N40 billion)
or 30 billion dollars.
10. That in return for the above contribution, the Ogoni people have received NOTHING.
11. That today, the Ogoni people have:
(i) No representation whatsoever in ALL institutions of the Federal Government
(ii) No pipe-borne water.
(iii) No electricity.
(iv) No job opportunities for the citizens in Federal, State, public sector or private
(v) No social or economic project of the Federal Government.
12. That the Ogoni languages of Gokana and Khana are underdeveloped and are about
to disappear, whereas other Nigerian languages are being forced on us.
13. That the Ethnic policies of successive Federal and State Governments are gradually
pushing the Ogoni people to slavery and possible extinction.
14. That the Shell Petroleum Development Company of Nigeria Limited does not employ
Ogoni people at a meaningful or any level at all, in defiance of the Federal government
15. That the search for oil has caused severe land and food shortages in Ogoni one
of the most densely populated areas of Africa (average: 1,500 per square mile; national
average: 300 per square mile).
16. That neglectful environmental pollution laws and substandard inspection techniques
of the Federal authorities have led to the complete degradation of the Ogoni environment,
turning our homeland into an ecological disaster.
17. That the Ogoni people lack education, health and other social facilities.
18. That it is intolerable that one of the richest areas of Nigeria should wallow
in abject poverty and destitution.
19. That successive Federal administrations have trampled on every minority right
enshrined in the Nigerian Constitution to the detriment of the Ogoni and have by
administrative structuring and other noxious acts transferred Ogoni wealth exclusively
to other parts of the Republic.
20. That the Ogoni people wish to manage their own affairs.
NOW, therefore, while reaffirming our wish to remain a part of the Federal Republic
of Nigeria, we make demand upon the Republic as follows:
That the Ogoni people be granted POLITICAL AUTONOMY to participate in the affairs
of the Republic as a distinct and separate unit by whatever name called, provided
that this Autonomy guarantees the following:
(i) Political control of Ogoni affairs by Ogoni people.
(ii) The right to the control and use of a fair proportion of OGONI economic resources
for Ogoni development.
(iii) Adequate and direct representation as of right in all Nigerian national institutions.
(iv) The use and development of Ogoni languages in all Nigerian territory.
(v) The full development of Ogoni culture.
(vi) The right to religious freedom.
(vii) The right to protect the OGONI environment and ecology from further degradation.
We make the above demand in the knowledge that it does not deny any other ethnic
group in the Nigerian Federation of their rights and that it can only conduce to
peace, justice and fairplay and hence stability and progress in the Nigerian nation.
We make the demand in the belief that, as Obafemi Awolowo has written: In a true
federation, each ethnic group no matter how small, is entitled to the same treatment
as any other ethnic group, no matter how large.
We demand these rights as equal members of the Nigerian Federation who contribute
and have contributed to the growth of the Federation and have a right to expect full
returns from that Federation.
Adopted by general acclaim of the Ogoni people on the 26th day of August, 1990 at
Bori, Rivers State and signed by: (see under).
ADDENDUM TO THE OGONI BILL OF RIGHTS
We, the people of Ogoni, being a separate and distinct ethnic nationality within
the Federal Republic of Nigeria, hereby state as follows:
(a) That on October 2, 1990 we addressed an Ogoni Bill of Rights to the President
of the Federal Republic of Nigeria, General Ibrahim Babangida and members of the
Armed Forces Ruling Council;
(b) That after a one-year wait, the President has been unable to grant us the audience
which we sought to have with him in order to discuss the legitimate demands contained
in the Ogoni Bill of Rights;
(c) That our demands as outlined in the Ogoni Bill of Rights are legitimate, just
and our inalienable right and in accord with civilized values worldwide;
(d) That the Government of the Federal Republic has continued, since October 2, 1990,
to decree measures and implement policies which further marginalize the Ogoni people,
denying us political autonomy, our rights to our resources, to the development of
our languages and culture, to adequate representation as of right in all Nigerian
national institutions and to the protection of our environment and ecology from further
(e) That we cannot sit idly by while we are, as a people, dehumanized and slowly
exterminated and driven to extinction even as our rich resources are siphoned off
to the exclusive comfort and improvement of other Nigerian communities, and the shareholders
of multi-national oil companies.
Now therefore, while re-affirming our wish to remain a part of the Federal Republic
of Nigeria, we hereby authorize the Movement for the Survival of Ogoni People (MOSOP)
to make representation, for as long as these injustices continue, to the United Nations
Commission on Human Rights, the Commonwealth Secretariat, the African Commission
on Human and Peoples rights, the European Community and all international bodies
which have a role to play in the preservation of our nationality, as follows:
1. That the Government of the Federal Republic of Nigeria has, in utter disregard
and contempt for human rights, since independence in 1960 till date, denied us our
political rights to self-determination, economic rights to our resources, cultural
rights to the development of our languages and culture, and social rights to education,
health and adequate housing and to representation as of right in national institutions;
2. That, in particular, the Federal Republic of Nigeria has refused to pay us oil
royalties and mining rents amounting to an estimated 20 billion US dollars for petroleum
mined from our soil for over thirty-three years;
3. That the Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria does not protect any
of our rights whatsoever as an ethnic minority of 500,000 in a nation of about 100
million people and that the voting power and military might of the majority ethnic
groups have been used remorselessly against us at every point in time;
4. That multi-national oil companies, namely Shell (Dutch/British) and Chevron (American)
have severally and jointly devastated our environment and ecology, having flared
gas in our villages for 33 years and caused oil spillages, blow-outs etc., and have
dehumanised our people, denying them employment and those benefits which industrial
organizations in Europe and America routinely contribute to their areas of operation;
5. That the Nigerian elite (bureaucratic, military, industrial and academic) have
turned a blind eye and a deaf ear to these acts of dehumanisation by the ethnic majority
and have colluded with all the agents of destruction aimed at us;
6. That we cannot seek restitution in the courts of law in Nigeria as the act of
expropriation of our rights and resources has been institutionalised in the 1979
and 1989 Constitutions of the Federal Republic of Nigeria, which Constitutions were
acts of a Constituent Assembly imposed by a military regime and do not , in any way,
protect minority rights or bear resemblance to the tacit agreement made at Nigerian
7. That the Ogoni people abjure violence in their just struggle for their rights
within the Federal Republic of Nigeria but will, through every lawful means, and
for as long as is necessary, fight for social justice and equity for themselves and
their progeny, and in particular demand political autonomy as a distinct and separate
unit within the Nigerian nation with full right to (i) control Ogoni political affairs,
(ii) use at least fifty per cent of Ogoni economic resources for Ogoni development;
(iii) protect the Ogoni environment and ecology from further degradation; (iv) ensure
the full restitution of the harm done to the health of our people by the flaring
of gas, oil spillages, oil blow- outs, etc. by the following oil companies: Shell,
Chevron and their Nigerian accomplices.
8. That without the intervention of the international community the Government of
the Federal Republic of Nigeria and the ethnic majority will continue these noxious
policies until the Ogoni people are obliterated from the face of the earth.
Adopted by general acclaim of the Ogoni people on the 26th day of August 1991 at
Bori, Rivers State of Nigeria.
Signed on behalf of the Ogoni people by:
HRH Mark Tsaro-Igbara, Gbenemene Babbe; HRH F.M.K. Noryaa, Menebua, Ka-Babbe; Chief
M.A.M. Tornwe III, JP; Prince J.S. Sangha; Dr. Israel Kue; Chief A.M.N. Gua.
HRH James P. Bagia, Gberesako XI, Gberemene Gokana; Chief E.N. Kobani, JP Tonsimene
Gokana; Dr. B.N. Birabi; Chief Kemte Giadom, JP; Chief S.N. Orage.
HRH M.H.S. Eguru, Gbenemene Ken-Khana; HRH C.B.S. Nwikina, Emah III, Menebua Bom;
Mr. M.C. Daanwii; Chief T.N. Nwieke; Mr. Ken Saro-wiwa; Mr. Simeon Idemyor.
HRH W.Z.P. Nzidee, Genemene Baa I of Nyo-Khana; Dr. G.B. Leton, OON, JP; Mr. Lekue
Lah-Loolo; Mr. L.E. Mwara; Chief E.A. Apenu; Pastor M.P. Maeba. TAI: HRH B.A. Mballey,
Gbenemene Tai; HRH G.N. Gininwa, Menebua Tua Tua; Chief J.S. Agbara; Chief D.J.K.
Kumbe; Chief Fred Gwezia; HRH A. Demor-Kanni, Meneba Nonwa.
THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY SHOULD:
1. Prevail on the American Government to stop buying Nigerian oil. It is stolen property.
2. Prevail on Shell and Chevron to stop flaring gas in Ogoni.
3. Prevail on the Federal Government of Nigeria to honour the rights of the Ogoni
people to self-determination and AUTONOMY.
4. Prevail on the Federal Government of Nigeria to pay all royalties and mining
rents collected on oil mined from Ogoni since 1958.
5. Prevail on the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund to stop giving
loans to the Federal Government of Nigeria; all loans which depend for their repayment
on the exploitation of Ogoni oil resources.
6. Send urgent medical and other aid to the Ogoni people.
7. Prevail on the United Nations, the Organisation of African Unity and the Commonwealth
of Nations to either get the Federal Government of Nigeria to obey the rules and
mores of these organisations, face sanctions or be expelled from them.
8. Prevail on European and American Governments to stop giving aid and credit to
the Federal Government of Nigeria as aid and credit only go to encourage the further
dehumanisation of the Ogoni people.
9. Prevail on European and American Governments to grant political refugee status
to all Ogoni people seeking protection from the political persecution and genocide
at the hands of the Federal Government of Nigeria.
10. Prevail on Shell and Chevron to pay compensation to the Ogoni People for ruining
the Ogoni environment and the health of Ogoni men, women and children.